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Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century



  1. Chapter 1 The Curtain Goes Up 1

    “Gregorian” Chant, the First Literate Repertory, and How It Got That Way

    Literacy • The Romans and the Franks • The Carolingian Renaissance • The chant comes north • The legend of St. Gregory • The origins of Gregorian chant • Monastic psalmody • The development of the liturgy • The Mass and its music • Neumes • Persistence of oral tradition • Psalmody in practice: The Office • Psalmody in practice: The Mass • Evidence of “oral composition” • Why we will never know how it all began • Beginnings, as far as we know them

  2. Chapter 2 New Styles and Forms 37

    Frankish Additions to the Original Chant Repertory

    Longissimae melodiaeProsa • Sequences • How they were performed • Hymns • Tropes • The Mass Ordinary • Kyries • The full Franko-Roman Mass • “Old Roman” and other chant dialects • What is art?

  3. Chapter 3 Retheorizing Music 69

    New Frankish Concepts of Musical Organization and Their Effect on Composition

    Musica • Tonaries • A new concept of mode • Mode classification in practice • Mode as a guide to composition • Versus • Liturgical drama • Marian antiphons • Theory and the art of teaching

  4. Chapter 4 Music of Feudalism and Fin’ Amors 105

    The Earliest Literate Secular Repertories: Aquitaine, France, Iberia, Italy, Germany



    Troubadours • Minstrels • High (Latinate) and low (“popular”) style • Rhythm and Meter • Trobar clus


    Trouvères • Social transformation • Adam de la Halle and the formes fixes • The first opera?


    Cantigas • A note on instruments • Laude and related genres • Minnesang • Popularization, then and since • Meistersinger • Peoples and nations • What is an anachronism? • Philosophy of History

  5. Chapter 5 Polyphony in Practice And Theory 147

    Early Polyphonic Performance Practices and the Twelfth-Century Blossoming of Polyphonic Composition

    Another renaissance • “Symphonia” and its modifications • Guido, John, and discant • Polyphony in aquitanian monastic centers • The Codex Calixtinus

  6. Chapter 6 Notre Dame de Paris 169

    Parisian Cathedral Music in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries and Its Makers

    The cathedral-university complex • Piecing the evidence together • Measured music • Whys and wherefores • Organum cum alio • Theory or practice? • Conductus at Notre Dame

  7. Chapter 7 Music for an Intellectual and Political Elite 207

    The Thirteenth-Century Motet

    A new class • The nascent motet • “Franconian” notation • Confluence of traditions • A new trobar clus? • Tenor “families” • Color and talea • The art of mélange • The “Petronian” motet

  8. Chapter 8 Business Math, Politics, and Paradise: The Ars Nova 247

    Notational and Stylistic Change in Fourteenth-Century France: Isorhythmic Motets from Machaut to Du Fay

    A “new art of music”? • Music from mathematics • Putting it into practice • Representing it • Backlash • Establishing the prototype: The Roman de Fauvel • Taking a closer look • More elaborate patterning • Isorhythm • Music about music • Machaut: The occult and the sensuous • Musica ficta • Cadences • Ciconia: The motet as political show • Du Fay: The motet as mystical summa • A final word from Dante

  9. Chapter 9 Machaut and His Progeny 289

    Machaut’s Songs and Mass; Music at the Papal Court of Avignon; Ars Subtilior

    Maintaining the art of courtly song • Redefining (and re-refining) a genre • The top-down style • Cantilena • Functionally differentiated counterpoint • The luxuriant style • What instrumentalists Did • Machaut’s Mass and its background • Avignon • Votive formularies • Ci commence la messe de nostre dame • Kyrie • Gloria • Dismissal • Subtilitas • Canon • Ars Subtilior • Berry and Foix • Outposts • Faux-naïveté

  10. Chapter 10 “A Pleasant Place”: Music of the Trecento 351

    Italian Music of the Fourteenth Century

    Vulgar eloquence • Madrigal culture • A new discant style • The “wild bird” songs • Ballata culture • Landini • Late-century fusion • An important side issue: Periodization

  11. Chapter 11 Island and Mainland 387

    Music in the British Isles through the Early Fifteenth Century and Its Influence on the Continent

    The first masterpiece? • Viking harmony • Insular fauna? • Pes motets and rondellus • The Worcester fragments • Nationalism? • “English descant” • The beginnings of “functional” harmony? • Old Hall and Roy Henry • Fortunes of war • Dunstable and the “contenance angloise” • Voluptuousness and how to acquire it • Fauxbourdon and faburden • Du Fay and Binchois

  12. Chapter 12 Emblems and Dynasties 453

    The Cyclic Mass Ordinary Setting

    The internationalism of the upper crust • The “Tinctoris generation” • The cyclic Mass • Cantus firmus as trope of glory • “Caput” and the beginnings of four-part harmony • How controversies arise (and what they reveal) • Patterns of emulation • The composer as virtuoso • Farther along the emulation chain • The Man at Arms • “Pervading imitation” • An esthetic paradox (or, The paradox of “esthetics”) • Old and young alike pay tribute

  13. Chapter 13 Middle and Low 501

    The Fifteenth-Century Motet and Chanson; Early Instrumental Music; Music Printing

    Hailing Mary • Personal prayer • The English keep things high • The Milanese go lower still • Fun in church? • Love songs • Instrumental music becomes literate at last • Music becomes a business • “Songs” without words

  14. Chapter 14 Josquin and the Humanists 547

    Josquin des Prez in Fact and Legend; Parody Masses

    What legends do • A poet born, not made • Josquin as the spirit of a (later) age • Recycling the legend back into music • What Josquin was really like • A model masterpiece • Parodies • Facts and myths

  15. Chapter 15 A Perfected Art 585

    Sixteenth-Century Church Music; New Instrumental Genres

    All is known • The triad comes of age • “Il eccelentissimo Adriano” and his contemporaries • Gombert • Clemens • Willaert and the art of transition • The progress of a method Academic art Spatialized form • Alternatives to perfection • Peeking behind the curtain • Dances old and new

  16. Chapter 16 The End of Perfection 629

    Palestrina, Byrd, and the Final Flowering of Imitative Polyphony

    Palestrina and the ecumenical tradition • Besting the Flemings; or, the last of the tenoristas • Parody pairs • Palestrina and the bishops • Freedom and constraint • Cryogenics • Byrd • Church and state • The first English cosmopolite • The music of defiance • Musical hermeneutics • The peak (and limit) of stylistic refinement

  17. Chapter 17 Commercial and Literary Music 691

    Vernacular Song Genres in Italy, Germany, and France; Lasso’s Cosmopolitan Career

    Music printers and their audience • Vernacular song genres: Italy • Germany: The Tenorlied • The “Parisian” chanson • Music as description • Lasso: The cosmopolite supreme • The literary revolution and the return of the madrigal • “Madrigalism” in practice • Paradox and contradiction • Exterior “nature” and interior “affect” • Postscript: The English madrigal

  18. Chapter 18 Reformations and Counter-Reformations 753

    Music of the Lutheran Church; Venetian Cathedral Music

    The challenge • The Lutheran chorale • The response • Augenmusik • “Concerted” music • The art of orchestration is born • “Songs” for instruments

  19. Chapter 19 Pressure of Radical Humanism 797

    The “Representational” Style and the Basso Continuo; Intermedii; Favole in Musica

    The technical, the esthetic, and the ideological • Academies • The representational style • Intermedii • The “monodic revolution” • Madrigals and arias redux • Favole in musica • Oratorio

    • Notes 835
    • Art Credits 849
    • Further Reading:A Checklist of Books in English 855
    • Index 865

Citation (MLA):
"." The Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press. New York, USA. n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2022. <https://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-miscMatter-021007.xml>.
Citation (APA):
(n.d.). . In Oxford University Press, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century. New York, USA. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2022, from https://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-miscMatter-021007.xml
Citation (Chicago):
"." In Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century, Oxford University Press. (New York, USA, n.d.). Retrieved 7 Oct. 2022, from https://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-miscMatter-021007.xml