A PARENTHESIS ON COLLAGE
In any case, the use of collage to represent the hurly-burly of the modern age was hardly unprecedented in 1965 (even if its most widely played example, Berio's Sinfonia, still lay three years in the future). Not to mention Ives, or even the French surrealist music of the 1920s, at least two prominent composers had by then made collage their main expressive vehicle. One was Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918–70), a German composer whose opera Die Soldaten (“The soldiers”), composed over a six-year period from 1958 to 1964, is a multidimensional collage in which split-level dramaturgy allows as many as seven scenes to play simultaneously, sometimes further augmented by the use of film and slide projections. Each scene, while coordinated with the rest, has a distinctive musical profile that often features quotations from the music of the past (Bach chorales, the Dies Irae, etc.) alongside Zimmermann's own serial constructions.
- Citation (MLA):
- Richard Taruskin. "Chapter 9 After Everything." The Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press. New York, USA. n.d. Web. 26 Aug. 2016. <http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume5/actrade-9780195384857-div1-009004.xml>.
- Citation (APA):
- Taruskin, R. (n.d.). Chapter 9 After Everything. In Oxford University Press, Music in the Late Twentieth Century. New York, USA. Retrieved 26 Aug. 2016, from http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume5/actrade-9780195384857-div1-009004.xml
- Citation (Chicago):
- Richard Taruskin. "Chapter 9 After Everything." In Music in the Late Twentieth Century, Oxford University Press. (New York, USA, n.d.). Retrieved 26 Aug. 2016, from http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume5/actrade-9780195384857-div1-009004.xml