Such references were made explicit in a special subgenre of chansons that stood at the opposite end of the rhetorical spectrum from the high-flown ballades associated with the ars subtilior. From the beginning the ballade was the loftiest of the fixed forms—the direct descendent of the noble canso, whose stanza structure it retained. The virelai was always the humblest, descending from the pastorela, later the chanson baladé—the literally danced songs with refrains that accompanied the carole. As we know, even in Machaut’s time the virelai remained a largely monophonic genre. By the last quarter of the fourteenth century, even the lowly dance song had begun to put forth some ars subtilior plumage—but its “subtleties” were of a sort that accorded with its content. The virelai became the site of sophisticated, even virtuoso, parodies of rustic and “natural” music.
- Citation (MLA):
- Richard Taruskin. "Chapter 9 Machaut and His Progeny." The Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press. New York, USA. n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-div1-009020.xml>.
- Citation (APA):
- Taruskin, R. (n.d.). Chapter 9 Machaut and His Progeny. In Oxford University Press, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century. New York, USA. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2013, from http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-div1-009020.xml
- Citation (Chicago):
- Richard Taruskin. "Chapter 9 Machaut and His Progeny." In Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century, Oxford University Press. (New York, USA, n.d.). Retrieved 9 Dec. 2013, from http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-div1-009020.xml