Among the earliest documents we have for the Carolingian reorganization of the liturgy and the institutionalization of Gregorian chant are the manuscripts, which begin to appear soon after Pepin’s time, that group antiphons (represented by their incipits or opening words) according to the psalm tones with which they best accord melodically. These lists, which began to appear long before the Franks had invented any sort of neumatic notation, at first took the form of prefaces and appendices to the early Frankish graduals and antiphoners that contained the texts to be sung at Mass and Office. (The earliest appendix of this kind is found in a gradual dated 795.) By the middle of the tenth century, these lists had grown large enough to fill separate books for which the term tonarius or “tonary” was coined.
- Citation (MLA):
- Richard Taruskin. "Chapter 3 Retheorizing Music." The Oxford History of Western Music. Oxford University Press. New York, USA. n.d. Web. 22 May. 2015. <http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-div1-003002.xml>.
- Citation (APA):
- Taruskin, R. (n.d.). Chapter 3 Retheorizing Music. In Oxford University Press, Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century. New York, USA. Retrieved 22 May. 2015, from http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-div1-003002.xml
- Citation (Chicago):
- Richard Taruskin. "Chapter 3 Retheorizing Music." In Music from the Earliest Notations to the Sixteenth Century, Oxford University Press. (New York, USA, n.d.). Retrieved 22 May. 2015, from http://www.oxfordwesternmusic.com/view/Volume1/actrade-9780195384819-div1-003002.xml